Golf

According to the rules of golf, you are allowed to carry fourteen clubs during a round of golf. The manufacturer's make more than fourteen clubs, but the most commonly used full set consists of:
a) 3 woods, numbered 1,3,4 (now usually made of metal)
b) 8 irons, numbered 2 - 9
c)

2 wedges: (1) sand wedge (2) pitching wedge

d) a putter
e) some players replace any of the above with
 

i) a third wedge

 

ii) one iron

 

iii) 5, 7, or 9 wood

Most players use a half or a seven club set consisting of:
a) 2 woods, numbered 1 and 3
b) 4 irons, numbered 3, 5, 7, 9
c) 1 putter
Each golf club differs from the other in two ways; length and loft. The shorter club has the greatest loft and will hit the ball the shortest distance with maximum height
Types of Clubs
There are three recognised types of clubs: An "iron" club is one with a head which usually is relatively narrow from face to back, and usually is made of steel or a composite material alloy eg. titanium. Construction is either forged or cast.
A "wood" club is one with a head relatively broad from face to back, and usually is made of wood, plastic or a light metal such as titanium.A "putter" is a club designed for use on the putting green.
Differences Between Irons and Woods:
a) Woods longer shaft, less loft on face, will drive the ball farther
b) Irons shorter shaft, ,ore loft; the higher the number of the club, the greater the loft of the club face.
Divided into 3 categories:
i) Long irons 2, 3
ii) Medium irons 4, 5, 6 (140 to 170 yds.)
iii) Short irons 7, 8, 9, wedge (140 yds. or less)
The Grip:
The philosophy behind a sound grip is to make both hands work together as one. To accomplish this a golfer can try any of the following grips. The best and most popular grip is the Vardon or overlap grip because it seems to accomplish the unity of both hands best. The second most common grip is the interlocking grip
The Vardon or Overlapping Grip:
All four finger of the left hand grip the club. Apply more pressure with the first three fingers (see illustration below). The baby finger of the right hand overlaps and is placed over the top of the first and second fingers of the left hand. Apply more pressure with the middle two fingers of the right hand.

The thumbs may seem to have little to do with a proper grip but actually are quite important. The left thumb should be placed on the top right side of the grip and the right thumb should be placed on the top left side. The little "v" formed by the thumb and first finger of the right hand should point to the right shoulder.

The Interlocking Grip:
Place all four fingers of the left hand on the club. The first finger of the left hand then interlocks or crosses with the baby-fingers of the right hand. All other aspects of this grip are the same as for the overlapping grip. However, notice that only three fingers of the left hand hold the club. This the chief difference between the two grips, and perhaps the main reason why most professionals use the overlapping grip. It permits a better and stronger grip with that very important left hand.
The Stance and Ball Position There are three ways to stand when addressing a golf ball. All three stances should be in the repetoire of a golfer because the stance should change in different situations.
Closed Stance- The closed stance is the stance that should be used for all woods and long irons. By using this stance it permits the golfer to bring the club inside the line of flight and generate a great deal of power.It is the type of stance which should be used when maximum distance is desired off the tee, on a fairway wood shot or when using a long iron.
 
Square Stance- The square stance should be used as one progresses from a shot of maximum distance to one of medium distance -- most commonly the distance covered from a four to a six iron. In hitting irons the goal is to hit the ball as straight as possible. The emphasis here is not on length so there is a shift from a power swing to one of accuracy. This objective is best accomplished by altering the stance to a slightly more square position.
 
Open Stance- a golfer is within 150 yards of the green to the point where he/she may be hitting a 7, 8, 9 or a wedge, the emphasis on accuracy is of utmost importance. To hit the golf ball as close as possible to the hole the golfer must shift her/his feet to an open stance. If the ball is struck properly in this stance the ball will have a fairly high arc and the backspin necessary to keep it from running off the target area.
 
Aim, Stance and Posture:
  • extend both arms and slowly lower club until bottom edge lays on ground
  • clubface should be square to ball and point towards target
  • knees are slightly flexed, bend at hips and stick out your backside
  • keep back straight
  • arms hang down naturally and relaxed
  • right shoulder is slightly lower than left (since right hand is lower on grip)
  • keep your head up (chin up away from chest)
  • ball should be halfway between both feet (not too far forward or too far back in stance) for most iron shots (ie. ball is centred) For driver, ball should be more forward in stance (towards front foot)
  • legs are shoulder width apart
Swing:
  • bring club back keeping left arm straight (do not bend left elbow)
  • point toe of club back and up (open clubface)
  • form 90' angle between straight left arm and shaft of club
  • bring heel of club down and turn so that clubface is square at contact with ball
  • strike ball with "sweet spot" of square clubface for straight shot and most solid contact
Off-Centre Shots: Will result if ball is hit with open or closed clubface
Grip:
Always check before each swing
Stance:
Square, Open, Closed
Posture:
K
nees bent, feet comfortably apart, ball lined up with the hole, weight evenly disributed, back is relatively straight, head is still over the ball.
Swing:
A proper golf swing must contain the elements of shoulder turn, weight shifting, hip and head action and timing. A right-handed golfer must learn the importance of the left arm and left hand which compromise 80% of the hitting power of a proper golf swing. There is a definite sequence of muscle movements that wind and unwind your body to apply your full power to accelerate the clubhead through the ball.
Other Golf Strokes:
Chipping:

Set-up is still similar to full swing. 1) Feet are closer together (6 to 8 inches apart). 2) Keep toes square or slightly open to the intended line. 3) Before swinging club back, advance the right knee towards the left so that they are almost touching. This puts almost all of the body weight on the left leg. Keep it there. 4) The left shoulder and left arm swing the club back. Left shoulder will be able to make only 1/4 turn because the body is so restricted with the weight on the left leg. 5) The hands are inactive, the club is not rolled inside or picked up. 6) Left shoulder and left arm pull the club through the ball with acceleration. 7) The lower body is totally inactive. 8) The back of the left hand keeps pulling the club through and down the target line. By using either a 6-9 or pitching iron (PW/SW) and applying the same stroke, the various distances are adjusted for i.e. 6 iron if the target is at the back green, 8 iron if in the middle, and pitching wedge if in the front.

Pitching: Set-up is basically the same as the full swing. Hips back, upper arms are resting equally and lightly on front of chest, and hands hanging below the shoulders. Feet are closer together (approximately 12 inches apart). Play ball in the center of the stance. Toes are square or slightly open to the intended line of flight. Before swinging the club back, "freeze" weight to the inside of the left heel. Keep lower body inactive and weight frozen to inside of left heel. Turn left shoulder back towards the chin and underneath chin (to the comfort point). If weight is held on the left heel, the left shoulder makes approximately a 3/4 turn. Hands are inactive, wrists will hinge in reaction to club head momentum. Left shoulder and left arm pull the club down and through the ball with acceleration. The back of the left hand remains facing the target for as long as possible, letting loft of the club send the ball the appropriate distance. The same swing effort can be applied to various distances by changing grip position on the club. Bottom of the grip for short pitch shots, top of grip for longer shots.
Sand Shots: Again the set-up is similar to the full swing. Hips back, arms in front of chest hanging naturally. As with the pitch shots, feet are close together (approximately 12 inches apart). The ball is played in line with the left toe. The sand wedge is held off the surface of the sand and aims to hit at a point 2 to 3 inches behind the ball. Feet line up 15 to 20 degrees left of the target, to induce a cutting action through the ball. Clubface will point at the target or 15 to 20 degrees open to your body. Freeze body weight to inside of left heel and hold it there. Lower body is inactive. Turn left shoulder back towards the chin and underneath it. Let club momentum hinge the wrists naturally. If weight is held on left heel, the left shoulder will make approximately a 1/2 turn (to the comfort point). Left shoulder and left arm pull the club down and into that point 2 to 3 inches behind the ball. If done correctly, the ball will rise softly out of the trap on a cushion of sand. Allow the left shoulder and left arm to accelerate the club through the ball. Keep the left hand leading the right hand. As with the pitch shots, the various distances are taken care of by changing the grip position up and down the shaft.
Putting: Feet are close together (6 to 8 inches apart). Ball is lined up with left heel. Hands in line with left thigh. Feet and body are parallel to the line. Eyes should be directly over the top of the ball. Shoulder will swing arms, hands, and putter back. Hands do not rotate the putter, they will keep their same relationship to the chest throughout the backswing. As the shoulders rotate back, the hands and arms return to their starting position. The clubface is again square for the line as is the palm of the right hand. The club accelerates through the ball and remains low to the ground. The palm of the right hand keeps facing the hole.
Typical Golf Hole:
i) A regulation golf course consists of eighteen holes. Each hole has a starting point called a tee, and a finishing point called a green. The land between the tee and the green is called the fairway. The green is a close-cut area with a hole, 4 1/4 inches in diameter. In the hole is a six foot flag stick (pin) as a marker.
ii)

The object of the game of golf is to move the ball from the tee, through the fairway and into the hole on the green, in the least number of strokes.

Terms Related to the Golf Course:
Rough:

Areas usually of relatively long grass, adjacent to the tee, fairway, green or hazards. grass area (fringe) immediately surrounding the putting surface' a hazard, often a depression and usually covered with sand. Grass bordering or within a bunker is not considered part of the hazard.

Obstruction: In general, an artificial object erected, placed or left on the course.
CasualWater: A temporary water accumulation not intended as a hazard; free drop.
Dog-leg: A hole in which the route of play angles to the right or left before reaching the putting surface.
Green: The putting surface.
Hazard: A bunker or water area, such as lake, stream or ditch (wet or dry), in which the club may not be grounded (club head can not touch the ground behind the ball) before making a stroke.
Divot: Turf displaced by a player's club when making a swing. It must be replaced immediately.
Tee blocks: Pieces of coloured wood which indicate where the tee area is for the hole. The golfer usually tees his/her ball between the blocks. The blocks are different colours depending on one's sex, age and ability.
 
Terms Related To the Flight of the Ball:
Hook:

A stroke made by a right-handed player which curves the ball to the left of the target. For the left-handed player, the ball will curve to the right.

Pull: A straight shot in which the flight of the ball is left of the target. For a left- handed player the flight is right of the target.
Push: A straight shot in which the flight of the ball is right of the target. For a left-handed player the flight is left of the target.
Shank: A stroke made by a player which shoots sharply off to the left or right because it was hit off the neck or heel of the club.
Slice: A stroke made by a right-handed player which curves the ball to the right of the intended target. For a left-handed player, the ball will curve to the left.
Topping: A stroke made by a player which cause the ball to bounce or roll along the ground because the ball has been hit above its center.
Terms Related to Golf Score:
A numerical standard of scoring excellence per hole, based on yardage, terrain, hazards and two putts per green.
Par Women Men
3 up to 210 yds. up to 250 yds
4 211 - 400 yds. 251 - 470 yds
5 401 - 575 yds. 471 and over.
6 576 and over ---------
Ace: a hole-in-one
Birdie: one stroke under the designated par for a hole.
Bogey:one stroke over the designated par for a hole.
Gross Score: total number of strokes taken to complete a designated round.
Handicap: a deduction from a player's gross score devised to match his/her score against par and to equal differential abilities of other players.
Net score: gross score less handicap.
Stroke play: competition based on total number of strokes taken.
Match play: type of competition in which each hole is a separate contest. The winner is the player or the side, that wins more holes than there are left to play.
Up: the number of holes (match play) or strokes (stroke play) a player leads his/her opponent.
Provisional Ball: a second ball hit before a player goes to look for his/her original ball which apparently is out-of-bounds or lost outside a water hazard.
Penalty Stroke: is one stroke added to the score due to various infractions eg. hitting into water or having an unplayable lie.
Terms to playing Golf
Tee: a coloured peg, on top of which the ball is placed before striking it from the tee area. Also, the teeing area itself.
Addressing the ball: taking a stance and grounding the club (except in a hazard) before taking a swing.
Away: ball furthest from the hole; to be played first.
Fore: a warning cry to any person in the way of an approaching ball.
Lie: stationary position of the ball in the grass or sand.
Ball marker: a small coin or facsimile used to spot a ball position on the green.
Honour: the right to tee off first, earned by scoring the lowest on the preceding hole.
Whiff: is when a golfer has taken a swing and did not contact the ball. It counts as one stroke.
10 basic rules of play for stroke play
i) Improving one's line of play, the position or lie of the ball or the area of one's intended swing is prohibited. Penalty for breach of rule is one penalty stroke.
ii) Any loose impediments (a natural object not fixed or growing - sticks, pebbles, stones, leaves) may be removed without penalty except when both the impediment and the ball lie in or touch a hazard. When a player's ball is in motion, a loose impediment on her/his line shall not be removed. Penalty for breach of rules is two strokes.
iii) If a competitor plays a stroke with a wrong ball except in a hazard, he/she shall add two penalty strokes to her/his score and shall then play the correct ball. The player's whose ball it is, shall place a ball on the spot from which the wrong ball was played. If a competitor plays any strokes in a hazard with a wrong ball, there is no penalty provided he/she then plays the correct ball.
iv) You may not substitute balls during a hole. Except in a hazard, the player may, without penalty, lift her/his ball in play for the purpose of identification and replace it on the spot from which it was lifted, provided this is done in the presence of her/his opponent. If the player lifts her/his ball for identification in a hazard or elsewhere other than in the presence of her/his opponent, he/she shall incur a penalty of one stroke, and the ball shall be replaced
v) If a competitor's ball is moved by a fellow competitor, his caddie, ball or equipment, anywhere but on the green, no penalty shall be incurred. The competitor shall replace her/his ball before playing another stroke. If a competitor's ball strikes a fellow competitor's ball, when both balls are on the green, the competitor incurs a two penalty stroke and shall play the ball as it lies. The fellow - competitor's ball shall be at once replaced.
vi) Before you play a stroke in a hazard the ground (or water in a water hazard) must not be touched. Penalty for breach of rule is one stroke.
vii) When the ball is played from on the green, there is a two stroke penalty for striking the flagstick or the attendant of the flagstick.
viii) If a ball is hit out of bounds the competitor must hit another ball, and after hitting the ball, he/she would then be lying three.
ix) If a ball is hit in the water, the competitor has 2 options:
a) drop outside the hazard not nearer the hole, under penalty of one stroke
or
b) re-tee and take one penalty stroke (stroke and distance).
x) If a ball is hit in casual water or within one club's length of an artificial object - fence, bridge, building, waterpipe, hose, greenkeeper's equipment, young tree under six feet the ball may be lifted and dropped within two club lengths, but not nearer the hole without penalty.
Golf Etiquette:

At the Tee - Players Should:

1. Always maintain silent while waiting for others to hit.
2. Sit or stand quietly when anyone is hitting.
3. Stand well away from the person hitting where he/she can't see you during his/her swing.
4. Never swing a club when anyone is hitting.
5. Refrain from hitting until those ahead have either played their second shots or are well out of range.
6. Tee off as quickly as possible if others are waiting.
7. Each player must have his/her own clubs; sharing is not allowed.
On the fairway - players should:
1.

Always play in turn so that the ball farthest from the green or "away" is played first, even though it means several shots in succession for the same player play "ready" golf.

2. Always replace divots.
3. Call "fore" loudly if there is any danger of hitting another player.
4. Signal for the next players to play through if a ball is lost.
5. Signal for players behind to play through, move out of their way, and wait until they are out of range before resuming play.
6. Never stand between a player and the green.
7. Never approach a green until the players ahead have left it.
In the Sand Bunker - Players Should:
1. Leave golf bags at the edge of the bunker.
2. Take the most direct route to their balls. This will avoid unnecessary footprints in the sand
3. Always smooth out the sand when leaving the sand bunker.
On the Green - Players Should:
1. Place golf bags on the side of the green toward the next tree.
2. Never place golf bags on the green.
3. Mark their balls by use of a manufactured marker, dime, etc.


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