Lacrosse

History
It is often described as the oldest organized sport in North America. Box lacrosse or "boxla" is more commonly played in Canada. In the latter form, 7-man teams play on an indoor surface the size of a standard hockey arena.

Lacrosse had an important role in Indian society, as it held religious significance and functioned in the training of young warriors. Since wagers were frequently taken on the outcome of matches between tribes, it also could play an economic role, raising or lowering a tribe's fortunes. Indian baggattaway was a rough melee. Matches could last 2 or 3 days and goals, marked by bushes or trees, could be 450 m or more apart.

One of the game's primary exponents at this time was George BEERS, who in 1869 at age 17 had been goalkeeper in a match played before the Prince of Wales. That same year, he set down lacrosse's first code of rules. In Sept 1867 he organized a convention in Kingston, Ont, at which the National Lacrosse Assn was formed. By 1889 its popularity was such that it was in fact the national game. Through the 1880s, it enjoyed sustained growth, spreading from coast to coast, and by 1900 its position seemed secure. In 1901 Gov Gen Lord MINTO presented the Minto Cup for the senior amateur Canadian championship. Within 3 years it had become emblematic of the professional championship and in 1910, the Gold Mann Cup was donated for the Canadian amateur title. Although Canadian teams won Olympic gold medals in 1904 and 1908, following WWI, BASEBALL replaced lacrosse as the summer sport. The automobile's growing popularity affected the game as well. As it took potential players and spectators out of the cities on weekends and holidays. After struggling with these problems, the Canadian Amateur Lacrosse Assn decided to adopt box lacrosse as its official game. Make use of unoccupied arenas during the summer months. The game is now largely played on Canada's West Coast and in medium-sized towns in Ontario.

Lacrosse
The original form of lacrosse, known as baggataway, was played by North American Indians as a means of training for war; as many as a thousand players would take part on each side, and games could last for several days. French settlers in Canada christened the game lacrosse from the resemblance of the playing stick to a bishop's crozier ("la crosse"). The first national governing body was formed in Canada in 1867; touring Canadian exhibition teams were responsible for introducing the game to the rest of the world in the latter part of the nineteenth century. The international governing body for the men's game is the International Lacrosse Federation.

Synopsis
Men's lacrosse is a field game played by two teams of ten players each; the team scoring the greater number of goals in the time allowed is the winner. The players use netted sticks (crosses) to carry, throw, or bat the ball around the field.

Playing Area and Equipment
The playingfield is a rectangle, 110 yd long and 60 yd wide, with a flag marker at each corner.The white lines marking the pitch are 2in wide, with the exception of the 4in wide centre line. The pitch markings are:
a) end lines
b) side lines
c) centre line, perpendicular to the side lines and equidistant from the end lines
d) centre, a point on the centre line equidistant from the side lines and marked with a cross
e) wing areas, parallel to the side lines and 20yd from the centre of the field, and extending 10 yd on each side of the centre line
f) goal lines, 6ft long lines parallel to and 15yd from the end lines, with their midpoints equidistant from the side lines
g) goal creases, circles with a radius of 9ft centered on the midpoints of the goal lines
h) goal area lines, parallel to and 20yd from the centre line
i) special substitution area, marked by two 5ft long lines perpendicular to the side line and extending from points 2yd on each side of the centre line.
A timer's table should be placed parallel to and at least 5yd from the side line at the centre line. Team benches should be on either side of and at least 10 yd from the timer's table, and parallel to and at least 6 yd from the side line. A dotted restraining line, extending the length of the bench area, should be marked parallel to and 5ft outside the side line. Penalty boxes, with at least two seats for each team, should be placed on either side of the timer's table.
Goal
  Each goal consists of two 6ft high vertical posts, placed 6ft apart at each end of the goal line, and joined by a top crossbar. The goals are 80yd apart, and 15yd from each end line. The posts should be painted orange. The pyramid-shaped goal netting should be fastened to the ground at a point 7ft behind the midpoint of the goal line.
   
The ball
  should be of white or orange rubber, with a circumference of 7 3/4-8in, and should weigh 5-5 1/4 oz. When dropped from a height of 72in onto a hardwood floor, it should rebound 45-49in
   
Crosse Players
  other than the goalkeeper should use a crosse 40-72in long; the goalkeeper's crosse may be of any length. The inside measurement of the head should be 4-10in for players other than the goalkeeper, whose crosse may be up to 15 in wide. The crosse should be made of wood, laminated wood, or plastic, the net should be of gut, rawhide, or cord, and should be roughly triangular in shape. Specific regulations govern the shape of the head of the crosse and the construction of the net. Players may.not use crosses that are designed to hold the ball or to make it unreasonably difficult for an opponent to dislodge the ball from the net.
   
  Dress
  Players wear shorts and numbered jerseys in their team colours; the numbers should be 6in high on the front of the jerseys and 8in high on the back. The goalkeeper may wear tracksuit pants. All players are required to wear protective helmets, faceguards, and gloves; shin and elbow pads are optional. The goalkeeper may also wear chest and thigh protectors.
Players and Officials
Players Each team consists of 10 players: a goalkeeper, three defenders, three midfield players, and three attackers. Each team may also have up to 13 substitutes.
Officials include a referee and an umpire who govern play on the field; a chief bench official who supervises players on the benches or in the substitution area; a timekeeper; two penalty timekeepers; ans two scorers.
Duration and Scoring
Duration The match is divided into four 25-minute quarters; teams change ends after each quarter. There is a three-minute interval after the first quarter; a 10-minute interval at half-time; and a five-minute interval after the third
quarter. Each team is entitled to two time-outs in each half of the game; each time-out may last up to two minutes. The referee and the umpire may also suspend play at their discretion Scoring A goal is scored when the ball has passed over the goal line between the posts and under the crossbar. A goal is not counted if it is scored:
a) after the playing period has ended, whether or not the whistle has been sounded;
b) after any official has sounded his whistle for any reason;
c) when any part of the body of an attacking player is in the goal crease area;
d) when the attacking team has more than 10 men (including players in the penalty box)on the pitch;
e) when the attacking team or both teams are offside
The team scoring the greater number of valid goals is the winner. Two or more four-minute periods of extra time may be played to decide a tied game.
Starting Procedures
Start of Match team captains toss for choice of ends, and play starts with a face-off at the centre of the field. When the whistle is blown for the start of play, the players in the wing areas are released. All other players must remain in their areas until any player of either team has gained possession of the ball, or the ball has gone out of bounds or has crossed either goal line area.
Face-off (B) Play is started at the beginning of each quarter and after each goal has been scored by a face-off at the centre. The two players taking part in the face-off stand on either side of the centre line, each with his back to the goal his team is defending. Their crosses should be on the ground along the centre line, approximately 1 in apart. The ball should be placed between the crosses so that it rests on them without touching the ground.

Each facing player should hold his crosse so that his hands are 18in apart on the handle and are not touching the strings; his hands must also rest on the ground. Both his hands and both his feet must be to the left of his crosse's head.

When the whistle is blown for the start of play, each of the facing players may attempt to control the movement of the ball or to gain possession of it by moving his crosse in any manner he chooses.

Face-offs after stoppages must be held at least 20yd away from a goal and at least 20ft from a boundary line. If a face-off is required directly behind a goal, it is held 20ft from the end line. The crosses of the facing players are placed at right angles to an imaginary line running from the ball to the nearer goal. The defending player stands between his crosse and his own goal, with the attacking player opposite him. No other player is allowed within 10yd of those facing the ball until the whistle has been sounded for the start of play. The goalkeeper may remain in any part of the goal crease area. Whenever the goalkeeper would be one of the facing players, another member of his team may be substituted for him.
Free play members of the opposing team must be at least 9ft from any player who has been awarded the ball for any reason.
Out of bounds
  A ball in a player's possession goes out of bounds if any part of that player's body or crosse touches the ground on or over a boundary line. The opposing team is awarded a free play at the point where the ball was declared out of bounds. A loose ball (ie one that is not in a player's possession) goes out of bounds when it touches the ground on or outside a boundary line, or when it touches anything on or outside a boundary line. The ball is put back in to play by either a face-off or a free play.
Offside
 

A team is considered to be offside if it has fewer than three players in its attacking half of the field, ie between the centre line and the end line nearest the goal it is attacking (team 1 in the illustration), or fewer than four players in its defensive half of the field (team 2). However, if one or more players from one team are serving penalties, that team is required to have three players in its attack half of the field and the remainder in the defensive half, and is not considered offside if the number in its defensive half is below four.

If a player realizes that he is about to make his team offside, and runs out of bounds to prevent this, his team is not penalized for failing to have the correct number of players in either zone.

Procedure after offside
  If only one team is offside, and a goal has not been scored, a penalty for technical foul is imposed on the offending team. If both teams are offside, and a goal has not been scored, play is resumed:
a) with the team in possession of the ball at the time of the offense retaining the ball; or
b) with a face-off between the two opponents closest to the ball, in cases where neither team had possession of the ball at the time of the offense.
If the attacking team is offside when a goal is scored, the goal is disallowed; a free play from the behind the goal is awarded to the goalkeeper of the defending team. If the defending team is offside when a goal is scored, the goal is allowed and no additional penalty is imposed. If both teams are offside when a goal is scored, the goal is disallowed; the two opponents closest to the ball at the time of the offense face the ball at a point directly behind the goal and 20ft from the end line. Substitution may take place at any time during the match. The player being substituted should leave the field through the substitution area, where his replacement should be waiting. This player may then enter the playing area, where his replacement should be waiting. This player may then enter the playing area on either side of the centre line, providing that he does not make his team offside. However, substitutions are permitted from other parts of the sideline when a goal has been scored: such substitutions must be completed before the whistle sounds for play to be resumed.
Goal crease area
 

A player is consider to have entered the goal crease area when any part of his body touches the goal crease area. An attacking player is not allowed in his opponents' goal crease area when the ball is in the attacking half of the field. But he may reach into the goal crease area with his crosse to play a loose ball, providing he does not interfere with the goalkeeper. A defending player may not enter the goal crease area if the ball is already in his possession; he may, however, enter the area when he is not in possession of the ball and receive a pass there.

A player who takes possession of the ball inside the goal crease may not remain there for any longer than is needed for him to step out of the area; nor may any player with the ball in his possession re-enter the goal crease. The goalkeeper is considered to be out of the crease when no part of his body touches the goal crease area, and part of his body is touching an area outside the goal crease. When the goalkeeper is inside his own goal crease area, he may not be checked, screened or tackled in any way.

Tackling
  A player may tackle (bodycheck) an opponent who is in possession of the ball or who is within 9ft of a loose ball, providing that he does so from the front or side above the knees. He must keep his arms below the level of his opponent's shoulders and must keep both hand on his crosse. A player may check an opponent's crosse with his own if that opponent has possession of the ball, and is within 9ft of the ball in fight. A player may stand in the way of and facing toward, an approaching opponent so that the opponent is impeded (screened).
Fouls and Penalties
Personal fouls: It is a personal foul if a player:
a) bodychecks an opponent who is neither in possession of the ball nor within 9ft. of a loose ball;
b) deliberately bodychecks an opponent after that opponent has thrown the ball;
c) bodychecks an opponent from the rear, or below the knees (except that is not a foul is his opponent turns or jumps so as to make a legal check appear illegal);
d) recklessly or viciously swings his crosse at an opponent's crosse;
e) strikes an opponent when attempting to dislodge the ball from his crosse;
f) strikes an opponent on the head with his crosse except when passing or shooting;
g) checks his opponent with the part of his crosse that is between his hands;
h) trips an opponent;
i) is unnecessarily rough or violent;
j) uses a trick crosse designed to hold the ball and prevent it being dislodged by an opponent.
It is also a personal foul if a playing or non-playing member of a team (including coach):
a) argues with an official;
b) uses threatening or obscene language;
c) commits any act considered unsportmanlike by the officials.
Expulsion Fouls: It is an expulsion foul if any playing or non-playing member of a team (including coach) strikes, or attempts to strike, any playing or non-playing member of the opposing team, or any official.
Technical Foul: Any breach of the rules that is not specifically listed as an expulsion or a personal foul is considered a technical foul. Technical fouls include:
a) a player guarding an opponent who is not in possession of the ball so closely that his freedom of movement is limited;
b) a player holding his opponent's crosse;
c) a player other than the goalkeeper touching the ball with his/her hands;
d) a player lying on a loose ball in the ground or withholding it from play in any manner;
e) a player throwing his crosse;
f) a player taking part in the game without his crosse;
g) a coach or trainer crossing the restraining line or entering the field while play is in progress;
h) a player or substitute delaying the game for more than 30 seconds;
i) a player failing to remain at least 10 yd from a face-off, or at least 9ft from an opponent having a free play;
j) any breach of the offside rule;
k) a player using an illegal crosse.

Penalties The penalty for a personal foul is suspension from the game for 1-3 minutes depending on the severity of the offense. The non-offending team is normally awarded a free play. However, if the foul takes place before the start of the game or after the whistle has blown for a goal or the end of a quarter, a face-off is held.

A player who commits five personal fouls is expelled from the game. A substitute is allowed to enter the game at such a time as the expelled player would have been permitted to reenter if he had not committed five personal fouls. A player who commits an expulsion foul is suspended from play for the remainder of the game; a substitute is allowed to enter the game after three minutes. The non-offending team is normally awarded a free play. However, if the foul takes place before the start of the game, or after the whistle has blown for a goal at the end of a quarter, a face-off is held. If a non-playing member of a team commits an expulsion foul, the officials select a playing member of the team to serve a three minute suspension.

If a player commits a technical foul during play, he is suspended from the game for 30 seconds only if his team was not in possession of the ball at the time of the offense. If his team was in possession of the ball, or if the ball was not in the possession of either team, the non-offending team is awarded a free-play. If the foul occurs before the start of the game, or after the whistle has blown for a goal or the end of the quarter, the offending player is suspended and a face-off is held. If a goalkeeper commits a technical foul inside the goal crease area, the nonoffending team is awarded a free play to be taken from the end line directly before the goal.

Penalty time may only be served when play is actually in progress; interruptions for timeouts, half-time, etc are not included. However, if a goal is scored against a team that has one or more players serving penalties for technical fouls, those players are released from serving any balance of their penalty time.

Penalty procedure If a foul is committed without a particular member of a team being involved (eg in breaches of the offside rule), or if it is committed by a non-playing member of a team, an official shall select a playing member of the team to serve the penalty. If multiple fouls of this type occur, the official selects additional players from the attacking system of the team to serve the penalties.

If both teams commit simultaneous technical fouls, the fouls are considered to cancel each other out. The team in possession of the ball at the time of the fouls retains possession; if neither team possessed the ball, a face-off is held. If both teams commit simultaneous fouls that are not both technical fouls, the team incurring the shorter penalty time is awarded the ball. If the penalty times awarded are equal, the team in possession of the ball retains possession; if neither team possessed the ball, a face-off is held.

If a foul occurs in the non-defending team's attacking half of the field, any free play is awarded to the nearest player of that team. The free play is taken at the spot on the field where the ball was when play was suspended for the foul. If however, this point is within a 20yd. radius of the goal, the position for the free play is moved laterally across the field to a point 20yd. from the goal. If the player awarded the free play is the goalkeeper, it is taken from the end line directly behind the goal. If a foul occurs in the non-offending team's defensive half of the field, the free play is awarded to any player of that team who is on its attacking side of the centre line.

Alternate/Variation of the Game
Object To advance the ball by passing and running to ultimately score a point by throwing the ball to a teammate who is standing in an area 6 yd. square
  Goal Area - (see diagram)
i) Goal Area- 6 yd. square
ii) Goal Crease- 10 yd. Radius circle, centred on the goal line
  -

The goalie must take the catch while standing in the 6 yd. square. His/her foot must not be touching the line.
- The shaded area is the goal crease and is out of bounds to all players, offensive and defensive, except for the goalie to retrieve the ball. A goal is disallowed if any shooter steps on the line or into the goal crease before the shot or even on the follow through. If a defender is in the area, a penalty shot is awarded.
  To Start the Game
- The winner of the coin toss is allowed to scoop up the ball and gain control of the ball. (It may also be started with a face-off.) The defending team must be 6 yd. away. As soon as the offensive player has taken his/her first step the defender may close in.
  Moving the Ball
The field between the two end lines is divided into three equal sections- defensive zone, neutral zone, offensive zone. (Size depending on the length of our field.) A player is allowed to run with the ball anywhere within a zone. The ball may not be passed completely over the neutral zone. The ball may not be controlled for any longer than 15 seconds within one zone or in the case of the offensive zone, before a shot on goal is taken, resulting in loss possession.
  Possesion
- If a player drops a ball while carrying it, the ball rolls or bounces into another zone, the other team will gain control.
- If a defender is able to hit the meshing of the stick to cause the ball to fall out then it is a free ball for the team able to gain possession.
- If a pass is incomplete, the other team will gain control from the point (approx.) where the ball was missed.
  Out of Bounds
- A player steps out of bounds or a ball goes out of bounds from a missed pass - other team throws it in.
- Player A trips or causes player B to lose control of the ball and it rolls out of bounds. It will be player A's ball.
Penalty Shot
(1) A penalty shot will be awarded for the defending team stepping into the goal crease area.
  (2) Any roughness that is considered unnecessary
(3) The shot will be taken by a player who has been roughed or the player in possession of the ball at the time of the penalty.

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