Rugby

The Field
The playing area is made up of the field-of-play and two goal areas. The field-of-play should only have the maximum length of 100 metres and be only 69 metres wide. A halfway line splits the field into equal halves. Two broken lines on either side of the halfway line mark ten metres away from the halfway line. Two other solid lines on the field-of-play are a mark for 22 metres from the goal line.
Two 5 metre broken lines from the touch line (out of bounds) running parallel mark the line where the closest players may stand on a line-out. These players give warning to the players who are running up the side of the field that they must watch out for going too far over and out of bounds. Lines that are 15 metres in are marked only at the other lines which go cross field. This is especially helpful when scoring a try because it marks the halfway point between the touch line and the first upright post of the goal.The two goal areas at both ends of the field are a maximum 69 metres across and a maximum 22 metres deep for each goal area. The line that marks the end of the field of play and the start of the goal area is called the goal-line. The other parallel line to the goal line is the dead ball line which marks the ends of the field.
On the goal-line, halfway between the touch lines are the goals. They are two upright posts which are connected by a five and a half metre crossbar which is three metres off the ground. The posts must be higher that three metres because the judging of a kicked goal will be more defined to the judge.
Equipment
The ball is an oval shape that is 28-30 cm long, 58-62 cm in width circumference, 76-79 cm in length circumference, and weighs between 400 and 440g. It is made of materials such as leather or another suitable material.
Players wear shorts and a jersey or shirt depending upon the game. Protection for the head and ears may be worn, but must be soft. Only approved scrum caps and shoulder pads may be worn.. If the player is wearing cleats, the studs on the cleat must be made of leather, rubber, aluminum, approved plastic and must be of measurements required or less. Also, cleats with single studded toe are not allowed.
Game Play
To start the game off, the kicking team drop kicks the ball from the centre of the halfway line. The receiving team must stand on or behind the 10 metre line. They are allowed to charge forward as soon as the ball is being kicked. The ball must reach the 10 metre line unless the receiving team reaches the ball before the ball gets to the 10 metre line.
The play continues until the end of the half or after a try has been scored. A try (A) is when the offensive team gets the ball across the opponents goal line and touches it down with downward pressure from the offensive player. This is worth five points. A penalty try may be awarded by the referee when the defending team uses a foul play to prevent a probable try and when they prevent a try being scored in a more favourable position for the conversion. This is awarded at a point between the goal posts. Other points that may be scored are a conversion after a try which is worth two points and three points for a goal scored on a penalty kick (B) or a drop goal (C).
A tackle in rugby is not the same as in sports such as football where the ball becomes dead. The game of rugby is meant to be a continuous game where the ball goes dead only after a score, or when it goes out of bounds. A tackle in rugby is when the defending team causes the offensive player to stop and not be able to pass the ball or part of the ball touches the ground. The tackled player must then let go of the ball. The ball is not to be played by the tackled player or the tackling player until they have gotten back on their feet. However, of the tackled player is on the ground, but can pass the ball before the ball has touched the ground, he/she may do so.
Offside plays are important role in the game of rugby since a pass may not be made to players unless they are on-side, or in other terms, behind the ball carrier. The player is not offside when the ball is kicked into the air and he/she is in front of the kicking player on his/her team unless he/she plays the ball immediately, obstructs an opponent, or gets within 10 metres of the player on the opponents team that is receiving the ball before it has been received. They are also offside when they join a breakdown (ruck or maul) from the opponents side of the ball. Other cases of offside occur during a line-out when players not involved in the line-out do not stay behind the line of player in the line-out.
Fouls in the game of rugby are:
When a defensive player charges the ball carrier unless running shoulder to shoulder
When offside, in the case of obstructing the opponent
When the defensive player deliberately knocks or throws the ball into play or over the touch-in-goal or dead ball lines
When the ball is knocked or dropped and the ball goes towards the opponents goal line it is known as a knock-on
When a player strikes, trips, kicks, hacks, or tramples an opponent
When a player makes an early, late or dangerous tackle
When a player holds, pushes, charges an opponent not holding the ball except in the case of a scrum
When a player deliberately causes a scrum to collapse
When a player obstructs an opponent when the ball is out of play
Penalties are awarded when a player does not follow the rules or sportsmanlike conduct. These may cause the opponents of the team that receives the penalty to be awarded a penalty kick, free kick, or penalty try. If a penalty or a free kick is awarded, the kicking team must remain behind the ball until it has been kicked and the opposing team must stand on or behind the line 10 metres away form the goal lines. However, advantage may be awarded to the nonpenalized team if they gain tactical advantage on the field even though the penalty or offside occurred.
The Rugby Team
A rugby team usually has fifteen players on the field. The fifteen is made up of eight forwards and seven backs.
The Forwards
The eight forwards are at least three forwards which make up the front line of the scrum. and at least two forwards in a line-out. These forwards require physical strength, size, and agility, as well as courage and determination. In a scrum, the forwards known as the hooker or centre and two props make up the front line. The hooker is the one who tries to get the ball to his/her team by kicking the ball with his/her feet and trying to get it out of the scrum. They also usually throw the ball into the line-out. The other two players (at least) are the props. They support the hooker by getting him/her to have time and space to get the ball out. The loosehead prop assists the hooker in trying to get the ball out. He/she uses his/her inside foot to kick the ball backward. The second line is made up of two lock forwards which are flanked by two loose forwards known as flank-forwards. The flankers' job is to push forward and inward. By doing this, they stabilize the scrum and can easily drop back and protect the scrum half if they get possession of the ball. They also require great stamina, speed, a great want to tackle and the ability to get control of a loose ball.
The Backs
The seven players other than the forwards are known as backs. They are the speedsters of the team. They also require the ability to catch and handle the ball well, the ability to pass accurately, and to be able to kick the ball with either foot. They are usually the ones who score or move the ball up quickly to advance down the field. The scrum half is the back that links the forwards to the other backs. He/she is the one who gets the ball when it has come out of the scrum and usually passes the ball to the other backs to run the ball up the field. On a scrum however, he/she may not go on the other side of the ball until the ball comes out of the scrum.

The fly-half is the player who often receives the ball after the scrum half gets the ball. He/she should stand about ten metres behind the scrum. half and not start running up the field until the scrum half picks the ball up. He/she then has to think quickly on whether to kick the ball or pass it off to the centres. He/she is the one who gets the play started.

The centre is often the player who receives the ball from the fly-half. He/she usually runs very fast and must be able to catch and pass while running.

The wings are usually the last ones to get the ball, but are often the first ones to pass it back across the field. Often by getting tackled, the wings stop the forward rush and should therefore be able to distribute the ball by passing to a loose forward or another back or to kick the ball cross-field or to use a grubber kick.

The full-back is the last line of defence and is required to make hard tackles on opponents and must be able to kick the ball far, as well as being able to receive the ball from a kick by the opponents. The full-back usually stands in a straight line from the ball and ten to fifteen metre behind the last back. This is because if he/she was closer, the opponents would be able to kick the ball over his/her head and have an easy opportunity to score a try.


Below is a diagram and labels of how a formation would look like:
Off-side Explained
The off-side law for open play is not the same as that for scrums, rucks, mauls and lineouts. In open play you are off-side when you are in front of a player on your own team who has the ball or who has last played it.
Being off-side means you are out of the game and you must not take part in it in any way until you are put on-side again. There is nothing wrong in being off-side. Every player is bound to be off-side at some point in the game. You get penalised only when you are off-side and you try to take part in the game. REMEMBER: simply being in front of the ball does not make you off-side. You are only offside if you are in front of the ball when your team has it (or in front of the last man in your team to play it) and you have not been put on-side again.
The 'Ten' Yard Law
If you are off-side when a player on your team kicks ahead, and you are within ten yards of an opponent waiting for the ball, you must clear off fast until you are ten yards from him/her, or you will be penalised. Just by staying near him you are affecting the game. You must retire at once: nothing he/she may do can put you on-side.
On-Side Explained
On-side means you are no longer off-side, so you can take part in the game again. Any off-side player (including one off-side under the 'Ten-Yard' Law and retiring) can be put on-side by his own team in these four ways:
1 A team-mate who kicked the ball when behind him/her now runs in front of him/her.
2 Any other team-mate who was on-side when the ball was kicked now runs in front of him/her.
3 A team-mate with the ball runs in front of him/her.
4 He/she runs behind any of these team-mates.
Any off-side player (except one off-side under the 'Ten-Yard' Law) is put on-side if an opponent does one of these three things:
1 Carries the ball five yards;
2 Kicks or passes the ball;
3 Intentionally touches it but does not hold it.
4 Except where the 'ten-yard' law applies, any player who is off-side in open play is always put on-side the moment an opponent kicks, passes or deliberately touches the ball.
Off-Side at a Line-Out
For players taking part in a line-out: (i.e. all forwards, both scrum-halfs, the hooker throwing in, his opposing hokker) - until the ball has touched a player or the ground, the off-side line is the line-of-touch. After that, the off-side line runs through the ball itself If you are in a line-out, keep on your side of the line until the ball arrives. Then keep on your side of the ball until the line-out ends.
For players not taking part in a line-out:(i.e. all remaining backs) - the off-side line is ten yards behind the line-of-touch, or the goal-line, whichever is nearer. Until the line-out ends, stay behind that line.
When the line-out starts and ends:A line-out starts when the ball leaves the wing's hands. It ends when one of four things happens:
1 The ball leaves the line-out.
2 A player carrying the ball leaves the line-out.
3 The ball is thrown beyond the furthest player in the line-out.
4 A ruck or maul forms and the entire ruck or maul has moved beyond the line-of-touch.
Set Scrum
Off-Side For everyone except scrum-halfs, the off-side line runs through the tail-end of the scrum. Any player not in the scrum must stay behind this line until the ball comes out. Scrum-halfs must stay behind the ball until it is out.

Ruck and Maul Off-Side
In a ruck (=loose scrum, ball on ground) or a maul (ball being carried) the off-side line is like the one for a set scrum: it runs through the tail-end of the ruck or maul. If you are not in the ruck or the maul, you must either get stuck in on your own side, behind the ball, or get back behind your off-side line.

Rucks and mauls; get in 'em or get behind 'em but don't just hang around 'em.
Don't handle the ball in a scrum.
Don't make the scrum collapse.
Don't kick the ball out of the tunnel.
Don't put the ball back into the scrum once it is out.
Do form a scrum quickly. Form it where the referee says. Put the ball in as soon as you can after the front rows meet. Keep the tunnel clear and let the ball in.

The Tackle
Being tackled is not the same as being brought down. You can be brought down without having been tackled. to be tackled, you must be held so that, for a moment, either you cannot pass the ball or the ball touches the ground.

When you have been tackled, let go of the ball at once, and leave it alone until you are on your feet. When you have made a tackle, let him/her release the ball, and leave it alone until you are on your feet, too. If you have been brought down but the ball has not touched the ground and you can still play it, you have not been tackled. So you can pass the ball even though you are held lying on the ground.

In-Goal play
All laws apply to the in-goal, except tackle, scrum, maul and line-out, which apply only to the field-of-play. If a defender breaks a law in his/her own in-goal, a 5 yard scrum is given. If an attacker breaks a law in his/her opponent's in-goal, a drop-out is given. If a defender puts the ball into his/her own in-goal and it is made dead by any player, a 5 yard scrum is given.

If an attacker puts the ball into his opponent's in-goal, and it is made dead by any player, a drop-out is given. ('Made dead' here does not include scoring a try.)

Knock-On and Throw-Forward
The only way to gain ground is to run or kick. You must not throw or knock the ball forward. When you give a pass, the ball must go along or behind a line parallel to the goal-lines.
'Forward' does not mean in front of you. 'Forward' means towards your opponents' in-, goal. If you fumble the ball and it bounces towards your own in-goal, this is not a knock-on.
Knock-on exceptions: A knock-on when charging down a kick is not a knock-on. A knock-on when catching the ball or picking it up is not a knock-on unless the ball touches the ground or another player.
Note: A knock-on must not be intentional. It is an offence to knock-on the ball forward intentionally, even if you catch it before it touches the ground or a player.
Advantage
If one does something wrong, and their opponents gain an advantage from it, the game goes on without stopping. The advantage can be tactical (good attacking opportunity) or territorial (a gain in ground).
First example: A player gives a forward pass but an opponent intercepts it and starts an attacking or passing movement. He/she has taken tactical advantage, so the referee ignores the forward pass.
Second example: A player knocks-on and drops the ball. His/her opponents kick it ahead and follow up. They have gained a territorial advantage from the knock-on, so the referee lets it pass.
Advantage covers 99% of Rugby. It covers all kinds of off-side, as well as knock-ons, forward passes, scrums, rucks, mauls, line-outs, drop-outs, and in-goal play.
If you see an advantage, grab it! Never wait for the whistle
Lying on the Ball
Falling on the ball stops a foot-rush, and is all right. Lying on the ball stops the entire game, and is all wrong. When you fall on the ball, you must at once do something about it. You must either play the ball in some way or get away from it. Whatever you do, do it at once. Keep the game going.
1 Rugby Rules
During a rugby game, each team has 15 players, 8 forwards and 7 backs. The field is approximately the same size as a Canadian football field (100 metres long and 69 metres wide The game is officiated by one Referee, assisted by two Touch Judges on the sidelines.
2 No team ever has undisputed possession of the ball, unless a free kick is called. You can never be sure which team will come out of play with possession.
3 Forward passing is not allowed. You can gain ground by passing the ball backwards and running forward with it, or when the way ahead is blocked the ball can be kicked forward.
4 A tackle does not end a play, so the action is more continuous.
5 There are no offensive and defensive squads. The same 15 players go all the way in a game. It is a great test of stamina.
6 Rugby is a contact sport, but as only the ball carrier may be tackled, they are not the violent bodily collisions of Football.
7 The ball is oval, but larger and heavier than a Canadian football.
8 The Scrum- One of the most confusing aspects of rugby to the new player or spectator is the scrum. The 16 forwards put their heads down in a tightly packed shoving match. The object of the scrum is to get play started after a stoppage for a minor infraction.
  The ball is placed into the tunnel between the two packs of forwards by a scrum-half. The player. in the middle of the front row (the hooker), attempts to heel the ball to his/her backs behind the scrum to start a new running play.
  Occasionally, the forwards will decide to keep the ball by wheeling the scrurn sideways and rushing the ball into their opponent's territory with their feet.
10 The ruck occurs when the ball goes on the ground between a group of at least two opposing player, for example, after a tackle.
11 The maul occurs when the ball is held off the ground, in the middle of a group of at least two opposing players in contact with the ball carrier.
There are two other ways the ball can get into play after a stop in the action.
  Kick-off A drop-kick from centre field at the start of the game, half-time and after a score.
  Line-out If a player runs (though s/he may not do this intentionally) or kicks the ball out of the play over the sidelines, the opposing team throws it in between two parallel lines of forwards, who jump to gain possession, like a jump ball in the game of basketball. The ball must be thrown in straight, between the two lines.
Scoring
1 A Try
A try is like a touchdown in Canadian Football, but when the player crosses the goal line, he/she must touch the ball down on the ground in the end zone. A try is worth five points.
2 Conversion
A place kick or drop kick taken from a point along a line at right angle; to the goal line from the spot at which the try was scored. The ball must go over the crossbar and between the uprights. A conversion is worth two points.
3 Penalty Goal
A free kick that passes through the goal-posts, in the same manner as a conversion. The penalty kick can be a place kick or it can be a drop kick. A penalty goal is worth three points, similar to a field goal in Football.
4 Drop Kick
A drop kick (the ball touches the ground before the open boot touches it) can be kicked by any player at any time during the course of play. It must cross over the bar in the same manner as a conversion to be successful. A drop kick is worth three points.
5 Penalty Try
Awarding when the defending team illegally interferes with play, causing the offensive team to miss a certain try. At the referee's discretion, five points can be awarded, with a conversion kick taken directly in front of the posts for another two points.
Laws
Here are some of the major laws that you will see applied during a rugby match.
1 Forward Pass or Knock-on
If the ball is accidentally thrown forward, dropped forward, or knocked forward on to the ground, a set scrum is awarded to the other team unless they have already gained an advantage from the play.
2 Tackling
Only the ball carrier may be tackled. No blocking is allowed. After a tackle, a player must release the ball.
3 Off-side
A player may not touch the ball if he/she is standing forward of a kicker on his/her own team. If he/she does, a penalty is awarded to the opposition.
4 Infractions
Minor infraction of the rules generally result in a set scrum being awarded to the other side. Major infraction are followed by a penalty kick.

Non-Contact Rugby

Non-Contact Rugby is a modified version of Rugby Football that can be played and enjoyed by everyone. Because the game relies on skills, it places greater emphasis on the development of running, handling and support play. Non-Contact Rugby can be played by old and young, big and small, male and female looking for a fun introduction to rugby and a way to develop rugby skills. The basic laws of Rugby Football apply but aspects of tackling, scrums, lineouts and penalties have been modified. Teams may be from seven to twelve a side and the size of the field may be adapted to the number of players.

Playing Area
A grassed area 50m x 70m, or half of a football/rugby field. A large gymnasium can also be used where outside is not possible.

Duration of Game
Two 15 minute halves with a change of ends at half time. This can vary with age and skill level of players.

General Play
Scoring- Points are awarded for tries (five). A try is scored by pressing the ball down over the try line with one or both hands.

Conversions- All conversions are taken from in front of the goal posts regardless of where the try was scored (two points). Conversions may be place kicks or drop kicks, depending on the developmental level of the players. May be ignored especially when playing in a gym or 1/2 a field.

Direction of Pass
No Forward Pass.
Offside- In general play the player is in an offside position when he/she is in front of the ball when last played by a fellow team member. A penalty is awarded only when a player is in an off-side position in general play and interfering with the continuity of play.
The Tackle and Resulting Play
Tackling- To make a tackle the defender must place both hands (one on each side) on the ball carrier's hips. The ball carrier must then immediately place the ball between his feet to be played by a supporting player or the Ball Take described in the following paragraph may be used.
Ball Take
The ball take can be used by a tagged player if there is no close support, as an alternative to passing immediately.
1. Presenting the Ball- When tagged, turn to face your team, crouch slightly, widen your stance and hold the ball close to your body. The tagger remains in contact with you.
2.Claiming the Ball- Your support player places an arm behind the ball.
3. Transferring the Ball-It is best to take the ball away from a shoulder to abdomen position then pass the ball to a support player.
Knock-On, Forward Pass
If a player passes, knocks or drops the ball forward and it touches the ground a scrum will be awarded.
Scrum
The scrum contains three or five players dependent on the number of players on a team. In a three player scrum, the front row contains two props and a hooker. In a five player scrum, two locks are added to the from row. The head position of players in the scrum are as per diagrams:
In the Scrum
1. No pushing is allowed.
2. Only the hooker can strike for the ball.
3. The hook is not contested (for older and more experienced players, contesting the strike by both hookers can be introduced).
4. The feeding scrum half stands on the left hand side of the scrum.
5. The ball is delivered by rolling it along the mid-line of the tunnel.
The non-feeding scrum half and both backlines stand behind their respective scrums in a position to turn and pass the ball, and do not move until the ball is back in the hands of the feeding scrum half.
Lineout
The lineout contains three or five players dependent on the number of players in a team. The same players who were involved in the scrum form the lineout. In a three player lineout, both props from each team stand facing the touch line one behind the other. There is a half metre gap between the two lines and a metre gap between the players in each line. The referee or hooker (third player) throws the ball into the lineout. In a five player lineout, both props and both locks from each team stand facing the touch line one behind the other. The same gaps as in the three player lineout apply. The hooker (fifth player) throws the ball in to the lineout.
In the Lineout
1. Distance 1st player from touchline 5 metres.
2. Hooker throws the ball into the lineout down the gap between both lines.
3. The catch is uncontested with younger players; caught in outstretched arms above the head and; depending on skill level, with feet also off the ground. For older and more experienced players, the ball is caught or deflected with outstretched arms with both feet off the ground. The hooker calls a position in the lineout to throw the ball to and the player from each team may jump and contest possession for the ball.
4. No players from either side can leave the lineout until the ball is in the hands of the scrum half.
5. Both backlines stand between 5 and 10 metres behind their respective sides of the lineout (dependent on their developmental level) in a position to run and pass the ball.
Off-Side
At scrums and lineouts both backlines must be behind the scrum. and/or lineout on their respective sides in a position to run and pass the ball. For lineouts the position of both backlines is dependent on the developmental level of the players.
Kick-Offs
The game is started with a kick-off at the beginning of both the first and second halves and after each time a try is scored. The kicker's team must be behind the ball. Opponents are five to ten metres away dependent on the developmental level of the players.
Infringements
When the following infringements of the laws (rules) occur a TAP PENALTY is awarded. This means a player from the non-offending team simply taps the ball along the ground, picks it up and passes it back to a team-mate.
1. In the line-out the ball is not thrown down the line of touch after 2 attempts.
2. Players leave the line-out before the scrum half has the ball.  
3. Players not in the line-out move closer than 20m to the line-out before the scrum half has the ball.
4. Players not in the scrum advance ahead of the last foot of the players in the scrum before the feeding scrum half has the ball.
5. An incorrect feed into the scrum- not down the centre of the tunnel.
6. An incorrect ball take or players move closer than 5m to the ball take.
7. An illegal tag (above the hips)
8. Pushing in the scrum.
9. Interfering in the line-out.
10. A player in general play is offside and interferes with play.

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