Soccer

Soccer is a ball game played by two teams, each of 11 players. The object of the game is to put the ball into the opponent's goal and the winning team is the one that scores the greater number of goals.
The field is rectangular and must be 50 - 100 yds wide and 100 - 13 0 yards long. At either end there is a goal and a goal area enclosed in the larger penalty area. The posts and crossbar of the goals must be equal width and of the same width as the goal line.
The touch lines (sidelines) and the goal lines are part of the playing area. At each corner of the field is a flag on a post.
The goals are located on the centre of each goal line. Their dimensions are 8 feet high by 8 yards wide.
The centre circle, with a radius of 10 yards and is drawn in the centre of the playing field. The midpoint of the circle is called the centre spot, located on the halfway line. After a goal is scored and at the beginning of each half of play, the game is restarted by a kickoff from the centre spot. Only the team kicking off may be in the circle prior to the kickoff.
The Ball
An official soccer ball must be spherical and made of leather or other approved materials. The circumference can vary from 27 - 28 inches and the weight 14 - 16 ounces. During play, the ball should not be changed unless authorized by the referee.
The Players
A soccer game is played by two teams, each consisting'of eleven players. One of the eleven must be designated as the goalkeeper and is allowed to use his/her hands within the penalty area. A variety of tactical systems of play have been implemented throughout the long history of the game and are constantly changing. The actual organizational alignment of players on the field is becoming less defined, since modern soccer emphasizes mobility and the ability of players to play both defensive and attacking roles.
Referees and Linemen
A soccer game is officiated by a referee assisted by two linesmen. The referee enforces the laws during play and is the ultimate authority if the field. The linesmen are positioned on opposite sides of the field. They indicate when the ball is out of play and determine which side is entitled to the throw-in, goal kick, or corner kick. They also aid in signalling offside violations.
Substitutes
One or two substitutes are usually permitted, depending on the competition and for any reason, but must be named before the game. Once substituted, a player may not return-to the game. The referee must be informed of any substitution. In the event of an injury an outfield player may become the goalkeeper provided he obtains the referee's permission and wears a distinctive jersey.
Duration
The game is played in two halves of 45 minutes each; the teams change ends at half time. The half time interval may not exceed five minutes, except by consent of the referee. The referee adds on time for moments lost through injuries, time wasting, etc. Time is also extended to allow a penalty kick to be taken at the end of either period.
Playing the Ball
Except during throw ins, the goalkeeper is the only player allowed to play the ball with his hands or arms, and he may only do so within his own penalty area (18 yd. box). A player may, however, use any other part of the body in order to stop, control, or pass the ball, move with it, or score. He may use his:
1. feet 3. thigh
2. head 4. chest
Below are a few diagrams of how to control the ball with your body.
A goalkeeper, however cannot pick up a ball redirected to him/her by his teammates' feet.
Scoring
A goal is scored when the whole of the ball has crossed the goal line under the crossbar and between the goal posts, provided that the attacking team has not infringed the laws.
Result
The team scoring the greater number of goals wins. If the number of goals is equal the result is a draw, though in some competitions draws are resolved by: replays; a period of extra time ( usually two halves of 15 minutes each) immediately after the 90 minutes; a series of penalty kicks or the toss of a coin.
Starting the Game
The two captains toss a coin for choice of ends or for the right to kick off. On the referee's whistle the team kicking off shall play the ball from a stationary position on the centre spot into the opponents' half of the field. At that moment every player must be in his/her own half and no opponent may come into the centre circle until the ball is played. Once played, the ball must travel its own circumference. The player taking the kick off must not kick it again until it has been touched by another player. A goal can not be scored directly from a kick off.
After the goal is scored
After a goal is scored play is restarted, the same way, by the team that has conceded the goal. The second half is begun with a kick off by the team that did not start the first half. If during play the referee stops the game when the ball is in play and there is no reason to award a free kick to either team, the referee may restart the game by dropping the ball at the place where it was when play was stopped. A player may not play the ball until it has touched the ground.
The Offside Rule
A player is onside when there are two opponents nearer to the goal than him/herself when the ball was last played. The offensive player may be beside (or even with) the last defender. The other player will probably be the goal keeper. It should be noted a player may receive the ball in what appears to be an offside position, but still be onside, provided there were two opposing players between him/her and the goal "AT THE TIME THE BALL WAS LAST PLAYED". In other words, if a player in an onside position moves into an offside position after the ball is kicked he/she is ruled onside.
When a Player is NOT Offside
A player is not offside from a goal kick, corner kick, a throw in, when he/she is behind the ball when a pass is made to him/her, when the ball comes from an opposing player, or if he is standing in his own half of the field.
Out of Play
The ball is out of play when it completely crosses the boundaries of the pitch, or when the game has been stopped by the referee. Play is restarted by a throw in when the ball has crossed the touch lines, or by either a goal kick or a corner kick when it has crossed the goal line.
A throw in
A throw in is taken along the touchline at the point where the ball went out of play. It is awarded against the team that last touched the ball before it went out of play. The ball must be thrown into play with both hands, from behind and directly over the head (1). The thrower must face the play (2). As he/she releases the ball, part of each foot must be on the ground either behind (3) or on (4) the touchline. Also, the player taking the throw in may not fake to one side and then throw the ball to the other side. If these rules are infringes the throw in passes to the opposition. No goal can be scored from a throw in, and the thrower may not play the ball again until it has been touched by another player. If the ball is improperly thrown in, the throw in is taken by a player of the opposing team.
A Goal Kick
A goal kick is awarded to the defending team when the ball crossed their goal line after having been last touched by an opponent. The kick may be taken by any player of the defending side, including the goalkeeper. The ball is placed within the half of the goal area nearer to the point where it crossed the goal line. The kick must send the ball out of the penalty area and the kicker may not touch the ball again until it has been played by another player. All opponents must retreat outside the penalty area until the kick is taken. No goal can be scored directly from a goal kick.
A Corner Kick
A corner kick is awarded to the attacking team if the ball crosses the goal line having been last played by one of the defending team. It is taken from the quarter circle by the corner flag on the appropriate side of the pitch. The flag must not be moved to help the kicker. Opponents must remain 10 yards away until the kick is taken ( until the ball has travelled its circumference). A goal can be scored directly from a corner kick, but the kicker must not play the ball again until it has been touched by another player.
Fouls and Misconduct
Penal Offences
Of the nine penal offences, eight are directed as intentional fouls against an opponent. These are:
1. Charging an opponent violently or dangerously.
2. Charging an opponent from behind (unless he/she is intentionally obstructing).
3. Holding an opponent.
4. Striking or attempting to strike an opponent.
5. Pushing an opponent.
6. Tripping an opponent.
7. Kicking, or attempting to kick an opponent.
8. Jumping on an opponent.
9. Handling the ball.
The ninth is largely a technical offence by players, other than the goalkeeper, handling the ball in play. It is, however, judged to be serious enough to warrant an award of a direct free kick or a penalty against the side committing the offence.
The nine offences are penalized by the award of a direct free kick to the opposing team, unless committed by the defending side within the penalty area, in which case a penalty-kick is awarded.
Penalty Kick
Any offense that incurs a direct free kick is punished by the awarding of a penalty kick to the opposing team when it is committed by a defending player in his own penalty area. A penalty kick is taken from the penalty spot. All players except the goalkeeper and the player taking the kick must stand outside the penalty area, at least 10 yards from the penalty spot. The player taking the kick must propel the ball forward and he/she may not play it a second time until it has been touched by another player. The goalkeeper must stand on the goal line. He/she is allowed to move along the goal line before the ball is kicked.
The kick is retaken if:
1. the defending team breaks the law and a goal is not scored;
2. the attacking team, with the exception of the kicker, infringes and a goal is scored;
3. there are infringements by players of both sides.
If the kicker breaks the law, for instance by kicking the ball twice, the defending side is awarded an indirect free kick.
Technical Offences
These offences are penalized by the awarding of an indirect free kick, to the opposing team.
1. When the goalkeeper takes more than six seconds while playing the ball in his/her own penalty area.
2. Playing in a manner considered by the referee to be dangerous, such as kicking or attempting to kick the ball when it is held by the goalkeeper.
3. When any player is deemed guilty of unsportsmanlike conduct.
4. Intentional obstruction.
5. Offside
6. When a player taking a kick off, throw in, goal kick, corner kick, free kick, or penalty kick plays the ball a second time before another player has touched it.
7. For dissenting from the referee's decisions.
8. For entering or leaving the game without the referee's permission.
9. After a player is sent off for an offense not specified in the laws.
10. For using a teammate to gain height to head the ball.
A free kick
Is either direct or indirect and is taken from the spot where the foul occurred.
A direct free kick
Is one from which the player taking the kick can score directly (without the ball touching another player).
An indirect free kick
Is one from which a goal cannot be scored until the ball has been touched by another player. At any free kick all opponents must be 10 yards from the ball, except at an indirect free kick less than 10 yards from the goal, when they may stand between the goal posts.
If the defending side is given a free kick in it's own penalty area the ball must be kicked out of, and no opponents may enter, the area until the kick is taken. The ball must be stationary at a free kick and the kicker may not replay until another player touches it.
THE SOCCER TEAM
Formations of a soccer team are what decides how many forwards, halfbacks, and fullbacks there will be. These are put as numbers going from the forwards to the fullbacks, this does not include the goalkeeper. For example, "2-4-4" means that there are two forwards, four halfbacks, and four fullbacks. Other common formations are "4-3-3", "4-2-4" (offensive), and"2-3-5") (defensive). Formations are also what sets up the kind of game the team is going to play depending on what the opponents are using as their formations or to create advantages or disadvantages. Formations are also used to set up corner kicks and free kicks.
They are used to provide the best opportunities for scoring or playing defence. Variations of these formations may have the players in front or behind each other or over to one side more due to wind. These are shown below.
Fundamental Points of Technique

 
1. Dribbling- with both feet 4. Kicking and Shooting
a) inside of foot   - keep eyes on ball
b) outside of foot   - non kicking foot even with ball
  - knee, ball, head in same line   - forward body lean
  - body inclining forward   - knee snap and leg drive
  - keep ball close to feet   - follow through
  - head up   - use both feet
2. Passing- with both feet 5. Throw-in - with both feet on ground, one ahead of the other to obtain power
a) inside of foot   - hands behind the ball
b) outside of foot   - ball behind head
  - lead the receiver   - use to put ball into play (out of touch)
  - keep the ball on ground    
  - follow through with kicking foot    
  - eye on ball    
3. Trapping 6. Heading - use forehead (hairline) for accuracy
A. With Foot   - eye on ball
a) with sole of foot   - stabbing action with head
  - form a wedge   - direct ball to feet of teammate
  - ankle loose, eye on ball, give with ball.    
b) inside of foot 7. Tackling

 

- give with ball, bend knee in   - head on tackler eyes on ball body weight well forward tackling foot is placed in front of the ball so that the inside of the foot is against the ball
B With Body
a) thigh
b) chest
  - give with the ball - (right foot tackle) right shoulder to right shoulder
- keep eye on ball
- ball should fall at your feet   - hands and arms at the sides

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